CCNA :- Cisco certified network associate.
CCNP:- Cisco certified network professional.
C.C.S.P:- Cisco certified security professional.
C.C.I.P:- Cisco certified Internet professional.
C.C.V.P:- Cisco certified voice professional.
C.C.I.E:- Cisco certified internetwork export.
Introduction of Computer Network and Networking Devices.
What is network?
Ans: - Computer networking is group of computer that connected and communicates with each other computer networking are use to share data resource and implement security.
Benefit of computer network.
Data sharing: - Data sharing are use to share each information on the Network.
Rescores sharing: - Resource sharing is use to share peripherals device on the network such as printer, fax, etc.
Implement security: - securities are use to control our user on the network form single location Called server.
FIRST computer network in world.
Ans The first Computer Network in world was A.R.P.A net (Advance research project agency 0 which design for DOD (United State Department of defense) in1970 at California university
Types of Computer Networks.
Computer Network con be wired and wireless Network con be categorized as per the geographical area to be covered by the network computer network includes Local area networks (LAN) campus area network (CAN), Metropolitan area Network (MAN) and Wide area Network (WAN)
LAN: - LAN stands for local area Network it is a computer Network that spans over a small area. It connects computer and workstation to share data and resources such as printers or faxes. The coverage range of LAN is 1 Km. the data transmission rate of LAN is 10 to 100 M bps. The institute of electrical and electronic engineers (IEEE) provides standards for LAN is 802.
Advantages of LAN are.
• Allows the user to share devices like printers or faxes in a Networks
• New user or equipment con be installed and configured easily
• Provides communication in smaller network with limited network elements.
• Provides easy maintenance as standard hardware is used for the computers in the network.
Disadvantages of LAN.
• Limited number of computers can be connected in a LAN.
• LAN con not covers large area.
• Network performance degrades as the number of user exceeds.
• LAN is more prone to virus and hacking than standalone computers.
CAN: – can is campus area network is a computer network. It is made up of two or more LANs within a limited area. It can cover many buildings in an area the main feature of CAN is that all of the computers which are connected together have some relationship to each other the range of can is 5 to 100 Km. example of CAN is collage network.
MAN: – MAN stand for metropolitan area network. MAN is the interconnection of Network in a city generally MAN is not owned by a single organization. It acts as a high speed network to allow sharing resources within a city the coverage range of MAN is 2 to 100 Km. Example of MAN is cable TV.
WAN: – WAN stand for wide area network. WAN covers a wide geographical area which includes multiple computers or LANs. It connects computers through public network like telephone system, microwave, satellite link or leased line. The coverage range of WAN is more then 100Km. the data transmission rate of WAN is 64 Kbps. It uses standard ITU.
PAN: – is personal area network which implement for temporary base. Ex infrared.
Network component .
Workstation: – workstation is a computer and node that are connected to the network it use to compute and execute application.
Node: – A single device which is connected to a network. Devices such as personal computer are connected to a network at a particular location. Nodes are also called as stations or workstations.
Backbone: – is powerful cable which connect network segment
Segment: – is single part of the network in which data transmit without any amplifier.
Terminal: – A devices which enables the user to input and get output of the data. Device such as keyboard is used for data input and monitor is used to display the output of the data.
Packet: - Packet is a block of information transmitted through the network. Block of information includes Data units or pieces of data. The information passes through the different layers in the network.
What is networking?
Networking is process to connect the computer to each other.
There are two types of computer networking.
Peer to peer networking: – it is simple type of networking in which all computers have equal right it is decentralize network and it also called work group network
Client server networking: – It is advance type of networking in which all computer are manage by the centralize server. So it is centralize networking and it also called domain group networking.
Introduction of Networking Devices.
Local area network is most commonly used by the organizations. The organizations need to connect multiple LAN's together to extend networks. The networking devices also called as internet-working devices act as an intermediate agent for transmission of data in the network.
The Networking devices include.
NIC, HUB, switch, router, firewall, Layer three switch, amplifier, raptor, bridge
NIC: – NIC stand for Network interface card it provide the connectivity between the computers. It also called LAN Card (Local area network card)
Hub: - is center-line Networking device which provide the connectivity between the computer hub provide the broadcasting when single devices send the data hub works on stare topology but logically works on bus topology hub works on layer first of OSI model.
There are three types of hub.
Active hub: – Active hub regenerates the received signal before forwarding it to all the ports. So Active Hub Needs a power supply. The small workgroup hubs normally use an external power adapter.
Passive hub: – passive hub does not require power as they do not regenerate the received signal before forwarding.
Intelligent hub: – Intelligent Hub provides additional features to the active hub. Also known as manageable hub as each port of the hub can be configured by the network operator according to the network requirement. Hub ports can be configured, monitored, enabled or disabled.
Firewall: - is security device which provide packet filtering from the internal network as well as external network firewall works on transport layer of OSI model.
There are two types of firewall.
Windows firewall Cisco pix
Linux IP table Wipro cyberoam
Check point sonic, UTM
Gateway: – Gateway is networking device which acts as an entrance (or a gate) for another network. In Enterprises. The gateway is the computer that routes the traffic from a internal network to the outside network. The gateway node often acts as a proxy server and a firewall. A router can also act as a gateway. A router uses headers and forwarding tables to determine where packets are sent. A gateway will not know all the routes to reach every address on the internet, but it will have the addresses of other gateway to which it can handover the traffic.
Switch: – Switch is centralized Networking devise it provide connectivity between computer it is layer two device which works on base of IP and MAC address a switch provide broadcasting and as well as unicast it is intelligent device which use memory and processing section.
There are two types of switch.
• Non manageable
• Manageable: – the switch have the option of managing it provide the configuration of port through the consol port
• Non manageable: – the switch which have no option of console we can’t manage this type of switch.
Differences between hub and switch.
Hub: – HUB is layer one device which works on star and bus topology it has less port single broadcast domain and single collision domain.
Switch: – switch is layer two devices which work on completely star topology more port single broadcast domain and multiple collision domains.
Router:- Router is layer three device which provide connectivity between two or more different network it also provide data routing a router create routing table to search the best path on the network.
There are many benefit of router.
• Connectivity of diff network.
• It determine best path for data flow.
• Packet switching
• Packet filtering.
There are two types of router.
• Modular, non modular
• Modular: – Router which have option of expandability
• Non modular: – the router which have not option of expandability
Bridge – is layer two device it has max three port it provide connectivity of segment.
Multi layer switch:- it is very advance type of switch which works as layer two device as well as layer three device it provide connectivity between diff network and all segment also.
• Straight over: – use to connect diff type of device. Like hub to pc, switch to pc, switch to router, pc to I/O, patch to switch Etc.
• Cross over: – it use to connect similar type of device. Like hub switch to switch, pc to pc, router to pc, hub to switch. to hub ,
• Roll over: – used to configure the manageable device through console port.
Colour coding for LAN Cabling.
EIA/TIA (electronic industrial association /telecommunication industrial association) Provide standard for LAN Cabling
Blue/white blue /white
Brown/white Brown /White
Green/white - transmission.
Green - T
Orange /white – receive
Other 4 ground
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